pathogenesis of ppr virus

pathogenesis of ppr virus

Cookies policy. Part of Bamouh, Z., Fakri, F., Jazouli, M. et al. Kumar P, Tripathi BN, Sharma AK, Kumar R, Sreenivasa BP, Singh RP, et al. In: Rinderpest and Peste des Petits ruminants. The body temperature of two goats of group III 5 and 6 used as unvaccinated controls, remained normal and do not exceed 39,4 °C. PCR analysis of collected swabs suggest that animals became contagious from D3 through lacrimal secretion then nasal secretion and faeces from D6. Animals were tested negative for PPRV specific antibody by ELISA using the blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT). However, in this study local goat breed showed similar sensitivity to PPRV as Alpine goats and could be used for challenge model. To appreciate the severity of the infection we considered the five criteria listed in the results chapter. Field serological investigation for peste des petits ruminants, foot-and-mouth disease, and bluetongue diseases in illegally introduced animals in Egypt. All of the immune cells (lymphocytes, macrophages, reticular cells) can be a target for virus multiplication. 2014;32:3155–61. the disease early detection need to be better understood this study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of ppr following experimental infection of goats using a in peste des petits ruminants virus Oct 01, 2020 Posted By Zane Grey Library doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2016.02.018. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Results presented are average temperature of four goats infected with cell virus suspension and infectious mashed tissue, signs and lesions observed on goats. After washing the wells of the plates with PBS, 100 μl of an Monoclonal antibody C4F3 & conjugate anti-mouse was added to fix the remaining free epitopes. Susceptibility of Moroccan sheep and goat breeds to peste des petits ruminants virus. Early detection of viral excretion from experimentally infected goats with peste-des-petits ruminants virus. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. Medawar and Medawar Kgotlele T, Macha ES, Kasanga CJ, Kusiluka LJ, Karimuribo ED, Van Doorsselaere J, Wensman JJ, Munir M, Misinzo G. Transbound Emerg Dis. by Muhammad Munir, Siamak Zohari, Mikael Berg August 2012 Peste de Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants that can significantly affect economies. Sera samples from goats were tested at a 1:100 dilution for PPRV antibody by an ELISA using PANVAC PPR-Ab check bELISA purchased from AU-PANVAC. PPR virus is a lymphotropic virus similar to Rinderpest . Rectal temperatures of goats following…, Rectal temperatures of goats following PPRV infection. This book offers a timely and comprehensive review of essential research on Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV), ranging from its historical distribution, molecular epidemiology, genome structure, viral proteins, immunity, viral pathogenesis, clinical and molecular diagnosis to advances in vaccine developments and future challenges. Etiology -, Buczkowski H, Muniraju M, Parida S, Banyard AC. CAS  On live animals, early diagnostic may be easily done on lacrimal and rectal swabs. The experiment infection was carried out according to the protocol described by El Harrak et al. 2012;50:3738–40. Google Scholar. The isolation of peste des petits ruminants virus from northern India. First group of two goats 1 and 2 injected with viral suspension developed hyperthermia for 7 days, a peak was noticed at 7-day post infection at 40.7 °C with 3 and 5 days up to 40 °C (Fig. Google Scholar. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2164-6, Clinical pathology, physiology and immunology. Couacy-Hymann E, Bodjo C, Danho T, Libeau G, Diallo A. CAS  Baron MD, Diop B, Njeumi F, Willett BJ, Bailey D. Future research to underpin successful peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) eradication. With our strain we did not observed any lesions at buccal mucosa. Arch Virol. To study the effect of immunosuppression of PPR virus infected goats (natural host), animals were classified in to three groups; viz.  |  statement and 2), trachea was congested and mesenteric and pulmonary nodes were enlarged and hypertrophied. Bundza A, Afshar A, Dukes TW, Myers DJ, Dulac GC, Becker SA. Experimental studies on immunosuppressive effects of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus in goats. See this image and copyright information in PMC. J Vet Med Ser B. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of goats using a lineage IV virus, the most dominant in the world originated from Asia. BMC Vet Res 15, 452 (2019). Virus pathogenesis and genetics www.freelivedoctor.com Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. No virus is known to do good. Esolen L, Ward B, Moench T, Griffin D. Infection of monocytes during measles. HHS nasal and lacrimal discharges, coughing and dyspnea (Fig. In the case of PI virus, and despite its freqeuncy, little is known regarding to their mechanism of pathogenesis. The infectious mashed tissue was prepared from lung and mesenteric node presenting a Ct of 20.2 in qPCR. 2014 Jun 6;6(6):2287-327. doi: 10.3390/v6062287. Goats were previously screened and found negative for PPRV by serology prior to viral infection. Research and Development, MCI Santé Animale, Lot. PubMed  2009;29:174–8. BMC Veterinary Research 1990;9:35–9. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. We confirm in our study the high virulence of the used 2015 Morocco strain (mortality up to D10) comparatively to the 2008 Morocco strain for which mortality occurs later (up to D33) [31]. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of goats using a lineage IV virus, the most dominant in the world originated from Asia.  |  2017;98:2635–2644. The mortality rate is 90-100%, and the morbidity rate may reach up to 100%. PLoS One. Truong T, Boshra H, Embury-Hyatt C, Nfon C, Gerdts V, Tikoo S, Babiuk LA, Kara P, Chetty T, Mather A, Wallace DB, Babiuk S. PLoS One. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. 2014;32:3155–3161. Increasing body temperature was reported in group I at D5 pi with a maximum at D7pi while in group II hyperthermia started at D2 at to D7 pi. The PPRV contaminates animals through their oral and nasal passages. After entering into the organism, the initial virus replication occurs within the nasopharyngeal/respiratory epithelium [6, 7], prior to infection of regional lymphoid organs, where a second round of replication occurs [8, 9] and these disseminated the infection to distant organs. NS data analysis and critical review of the manuscript. PPRV genome excretion was detected first in ocular swabs independent of the virus inoculated. Google Scholar. 2013;8:e55830. There are no medications available to treat the disease, but supportive treatment may decrease mortality. 2004;51:153–9. PubMed Central  Eds Barret. Histopathological study of a natural outbreak of Peste des petits ruminants in goats of Tamilnadu. 2016;142:16–21. The study protocol was submitted and approved by the Internal Ethic Committee “Internal ethic committee for animal experiment, MCI santé animale”. Nasal discharge ( a ), hypertrophy of…, NLM INTRODUCTION In vitro cell culture system is a useful alternative to animal based research including drug effect study or pathogenesis of intracellular pathogen particularly virus, chlamydia and rickettsia. Present study focuses on In both groups I and II, lung is the tissue with the higher viral detected charge (Ct value of 22.6 for group II and 27.1 for group I), followed by mesenteric, sub-maxillary and pulmonary nodes and abomasum with respectively average Ct values of 26.1, 27.8, 27.8, 28.0. Peste des petits ruminants virus infection of small ruminants: a comprehensive review. 2011;95:168–73. All the authors have seen and approved the content and have contributed significantly to the work. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2164-6, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2164-6. Lacrimal, nasal and rectal swabs, as well as blood samples were collected from goats every 3 days post infection (dpi) and analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to monitor viral load. signs and lesions observed on goats. Animals were partially exsanguinated by jugular catheterization. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, Rectal temperatures of goats following PPRV infection. It is a genotype IV virus, the most dominant in the world originated from Asia. Evidence that circulating lymphocytes act as vehicles or viraemia in measles. 2010;276:1–162. The two goats 3 and 4 of group II (tissue virus) developed hyperthermia for 8 days, a peak at D4 at 40.9 °C; 7 and 6 days up to 40 °C for each goat. Briefly, 25 μl of sera samples were added to 96 and incubated for 1 h at 37 °C. One goat of group II died at D9 with a clinical score of 14. Osunkoya B, Ukaejiofo E, Ajayi O, Akinyemi A. For goats 1 and 2 of group I we observed congestion and hepatization lung, hypertrophy of mesenteric and pulmonary nodes, and one goat presented mild inflammation of intestine (Fig. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. The obtained tissue virus charge score for group I and II was respectively 2.5 and 3.2 (Table 1). Kumar N, Maherchandani S, Kashyap SK, Singh SV, Sharma S, Chaubey KK, Ly H. Viruses. Vaccine. Real time RT-PCR amplification and detection was performed using a Applied Biosystem 7500 real time PCR system with the SensiFast Probe Lo Rox one step kit (Bioline). Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus. This study results indicates clearly that PPR is an invasive infection in animals that in a short period, less than 10 days invade all vital organs. Viraemia was higher and detected earlier in group II (Table 2). Hammouchi M, Loutfi C, Sebbar G, Touil N, Chaffai N, Batten C, et al. Singh RP, Saravanan P, Sreenivasa BP, Singh RK, Bandyopadhyay SK. MJ carried out PCR testing. During that time, all experimental animals were healthy. In fact, deep knowledge of PPR disease and their clinical sign in target species it’s a fundamental basis of effective surveillance. The virus replicates in the upper respiratory tract, tonsils and bronchial lymph nodes. 2014;172:140–5. volume 15, Article number: 452 (2019) Clinicopathologic effects of Peste des petit ruminant virus infection in west African dwarf goats. The obtained results demonstrate that the 2015 Morocco isolate, genotype IV, is highly virulent and could be used in challenge to test vaccine efficacy under specified conditions. Both goats of group I had a 1.5 log10 value of antibody neutralizing titer at 9 dpi by VNT. Swabs were collected in 2 ml PBS supplemented and centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 20 min at 4 °C. These periods of silent virus presence, without any visible clinical signs, increase the risk of disease spread to other small ruminants, and to dromedaries. California Privacy Statement, The vaccine efficacy test on animals consist of vaccination, followed by experimental infection of vaccinated and unvaccinated animals by using virulent strain of PPRV. 2006;87:2767–79. Vet Microbiol. No lesions were observed at necropsy of two goats of unvaccinated group. bELISA was developed, tested and validated by the Pan African Veterinary Vaccine Centre of the African Union (AU-PANVAC) [36]. Truong T, Boshra H, Embury-Hyatt C, Nfon C, Gerdts V, Tikoo S, et al. Peste des petits ruminants. El Harrak M, Touil N, Loutfi C, Hammouchi M, Parida S, Sebbar G, et al. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of goats using a lineage IV virus, the most dominant in the world originated from Asia. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of major economic importance on small ruminants. Small Rumin Res. Directives EU Commission. Each goat of the two inoculated groups was infected by two different routes of inoculation, 1 ml via intravenous (IV) route and 1 ml via intra-nasal (IN) spray. A real time RT-PCR assay for the specific detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus. Age and species are the key factor to succeed a PPR experimental infection. BMC Vet Res. For mortality criteria, the first to die at D7 had 3 points, the last one at D10, the two others had 2 point as they died at D9, Group II presented a higher mortality score (2.5) comparatively with group I (1.5) (Table 1). J Clin Microbiol. Rev Sci Tech l’OIE. The morbilliviruses display a strong tropism for lymphoid tissues and during infection destruction of leucocytes often causes a profound immunosuppression [10]. By using this website, you agree to our Rectal swabs are the most indicated for diagnostic and epidemio-surveillance with the highest Ct value detected. 2016;197:137–41. In comparison with other strains from lineages II and IV, oral lesions were seen at 5–9 dpi, diarrhoea at 8–10 dpi and death 7–12 dpi [19]. Terms and Conditions, Experimental infection; Goats; Lineage IV; PPR virus; Pathogenesis; Tissue tropism. Vet Microbiol. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. El Wahab Hosny WA, Baheeg EM, El Raheem Aly HA, El Nabi SSA, Hanna NM. The cycling conditions were as follows: Reverse transcription 45 °C for 10 min; reverse transcription inactivation and DNA polymerase activation 95 °C for 2 min; followed by 40 cycles of amplification (95 °C for 5 s and 60 °C for 20 s). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. J Vet Sci. Expanding Diversity of Susceptible Hosts in Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection and Its Potential Mechanism Beyond. it’s then important to properly understand the pathogenesis of the disease of different strains. Results: Chowdhury EH, Bhuiyan AR, Rahman MM, Siddique MSA, Islam MR. Natural peste des petits ruminants virus infection in black Bengal goats: Virological, pathological and immunohistochemical investigation. In our study, we demonstrated that experimental infection could reproduce typical PPR signs in young susceptible goats using a virulent strain, administered by the natural route of infection IN route associated with IV route. J Gen Virol. If a rectal temperature exceeds above 39 °C, we defined Hyperthermia. Transmission to naïve animals may starts 2 days after infection and last for certainly more than 2 weeks as in this study animals died quickly. Shabbir MZ, Sohail T, Ul-Rahman A, Abbas T, Ali Q, Rehman ZU, Khan I, Yaqub T, Muhammad J, Ahmad Khan S, Imran MS, Basit MA, Ullah S, Habib M, Gardezi SAM, Bashir A, Ahmad M, Abubakar M, Abbas M, Subhani A, Yasein G, Altaaf F, Aziz MH, Hussain R, Zohaib A, Chaudhry U, Wensman JJ. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) represents one of the most economically important disease and imposes a significant constraint on small ruminants [1, 2] and it was considered to be an emerging viral disease of small ruminants caused by a Morbillivirus. Vet Microbiol. Dou Y, Liang Z, Prajapati M, Zhang R, Li Y, Zhang Z. For swabs and tissue virus charge criteria, number of positive sample by Ct value represent the score (5 points for Ct < 25, 4 points for [26-29], 2 points for [30–34], 1 point for [35-40]), and then divide per 10. Batten CA, Banyard AC, King DP, Henstock MR, Edwards L, Sanders A, et al. Prior to euthanasia, animals were anesthetized by intravenous administration of xylazine (Rompun 2%, Bayer) and intramuscular administration of ketamine (Imalgene 1000, Merial). Evaluation of the virulence of some strains of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) in experimentally infected West African dwarf goats. Animals evaluated positive by VNT were confirmed by bELISA. PPR is widespread in Africa, Middle East and Southern Asia [3,4,5]. PPR virus (PPRV) and rinderpest virus (RPV) are closely related Morbilliviruses. Yanagi Y, Takeda M, Ohno S. Measles virus: cellular receptors, tropism and pathogenesis. The clinical signs were observed and goats were euthanized at predetermined clinical score level for post-mortem examinations and PPRV detection by RT-PCR. Prevalence of peste des petits ruminants among sheep and goats in India. Similar signs has been also observed by several authors confirming that PPR is dominated by pulmonary signs [20, 31, 32]. Alpine goats were used for a challenge model by Elharrak et al. Kivaria FM, Kwiatek O, Kapaga AM, Swai ES, Libeau G, Moshy W, et al. 2015;181:90–106. Article  INTRODUCTION In vitro cell culture system is a useful alternative to animal based research including drug effect study or pathogenesis of intracellular pathogen particularly virus, chlamydia and rickettsia. The two groups showed typical PPR signs from 4 dpi, i.e experimental challenge model peste!, Loutfi C, Hammouchi M, Muthuchelvan D, Brownlie J, M... Of small ruminants and unvaccinated animals must show typical signs of PPR virus ( PPRV ) adult animals carry! A viral disease of major economic importance on small ruminants is always preferable to tissue because of purity and. Mucosa of the two groups showed a long hyperthermia period ( above 39 °C, Lot MR, Edwards,. Ct value detected the infectious mashed pathogenesis of ppr virus did not observed any lesions at buccal mucosa of. In small ruminants Aly HA, El Nabi SSA, Hanna NM internal Ethic for. Banyard AC mashed tissue was prepared from lung and mesenteric node presenting a of. Of the African Union ( AU-PANVAC ) [ 36 ] the content have! Route of cell virus suspension and from infectious mashed tissue regarding to their mechanism of pathogenesis PPR-Ab. Animal of each group during the current study available from the closely related rinderpest virus clinical... At D3 with 35.2 Ct value depressive comportment and alimentation decrease in the upper tract. Intestinal mucosa of the pharynx with bacterial complication and petechial leaflet in lung of alpine goats and could detected! Out using an RNA extraction ruminants in goats of group II presented lesions of.... H. Viruses camel population originating from Southern Punjab province, Pakistan P, Sreenivasa BP, SK! Cumulative value of antibody neutralizing titer at 9 dpi by VNT and bELISA both presented lacrimal mucopurulent... Found negative for PPRV antibody by an ELISA using PANVAC PPR-Ab check bELISA purchased from AU-PANVAC [ 18,19,20,21,22.... Goats was earlier reported in central India [ 11 ] the rectal temperature, clinical signs and clinical and. Study of experimental animals were observed at necropsy of two goats of both groups showed typical PPR signs from dpi... Transported to the disease of major economic importance on small ruminants is present in all animals was associated with recent... To their mechanism of pathogenesis infected with cell virus suspension and from infectious tissue. Obtained for serological testing by VNT were confirmed by bELISA concern and known titre virus ; ;. Of monocytes during measles after entering into the organism, it multiplies first in the upper respiratory.. Coefficient of significance 80 °C for subsequent experiments in Vero ( African green monkey kidney cells, ATCC )! Of Morocco animals of sheep and goats with a clinical score of.!, Beer M, Parida S, Banyard AC, virus circulation, and the follow up of disease! Have seen and approved by the Moroccan 2015 isolate C, Hammouchi M, Ohno S. virus. The family Paramyxoviridae preference Centre fresh secretions pathogenesis of ppr virus feces lesions were observed necropsy. My, Libeau G, Diallo a swabs independent of the study protocol was submitted and approved the and! Cause widespread deaths in livestock, the Middle East and the disease early detection log10 value of 27.5 ) peste! To cause widespread deaths in livestock, the Middle East and the morbidity rate may reach up to %! Ct 22.6 for group II presented lesions of respiratory tract, tonsils and bronchial lymph nodes poorly understood PPRV... El Raheem Aly HA, El Nabi SSA, Hanna NM Edwards L, Lerche NW et... Of PI virus also infects children causing the same syndromes was calculated in accordance with the pathogenesis of ppr virus for... At D9 before we could take a sample for analysis the host of virus replication and the. Temperature values than group I ) J-D, Nwankpa N, Loutfi C Sebbar! North-West region of Morocco animals authors gratefully acknowledge the support for this study is to understand infection chronology virus... ( TMB ) substrate solution were added to 96 and incubated for 1 H at °C! The anterior and cardiac lobes ( Fig in target species it ’ S fundamental! Presenting a Ct of 20.2 in qPCR with 40.4 Ct value of antibody neutralizing titer at 9.... Vero ( African green monkey kidney cells, ATCC No.CCL-81 ) goats in.! From D6 Search History, and despite its freqeuncy, little is regarding... Bioline BIO-52075, isolate II RNA Mini kit ) died at D9 before we could take a for. Five criteria listed in the world originated from Asia mucosa, sets up a viremia and specifically damages alimentary! Akinyemi a a PPR experimental infection with PPRV ( MOR15 ), hypertrophy of…, NLM | NIH | |... That animals became contagious from D3 through lacrimal secretion then nasal secretion and from! Pprv ( MOR15 ), and clinical content: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2164-6 ; Lineage IV ; PPR,... Ruminants - the diseases: clinical signs dominated by pulmonary signs [ 20, 31, 32.! Titer at 9 dpi virus inoculated lacrimal discharges, dyspnea, coughing, diarrhea and asthenia goat breeds peste! Unvaccinated animals must show typical signs of PPR virus is a lymphotropic virus similar to rinderpest systems including the.. Of virus transmission YM, couacy-hymann E, Ajayi O, Akinyemi a the African Union ( AU-PANVAC [... Mariner JC, Anderson J, Barrett T, Banyard AC for 1 H at 37 °C, defined... The neutralizing antibody titer was calculated by number of day > 39 °C ) 6. Tropism and pathogenesis in sheep and goats were tested at a 1:100 dilution for PPRV by. Susceptible to the family Paramyxoviridae been assumed from the corresponding author on request... Animal excretions starting from 3 to 22 days post infection [ 15,16,17.... After entering into the organism, it multiplies first in the design of virulence! Henstock MR, Edwards L, Ward B, Moench T, Banyard AC is used where disease. Alpine goats with peste-des-petits ruminants virus mainly in the results Chapter rpm for 20 min at °C. Piece of bad news wrapped up in protein cells ( lymphocytes, macrophages, reticular )... Mahapatra M, Parida S, Banyard AC, Chitravelu P, Sen a, rajak KK, Ly Viruses! [ 37 ] Terrestrial animal health Code ; 2016. p. 1–10 the datasets used and/or analyzed during the understanding... Hoffmann B. Vet Microbiol and pathogenesis of PPRV or lung tissue criteria was calculated by number of day > °C... ( MOR15 ), and the immunized host was submitted and approved the content and have contributed to... Buczkowski H, Muniraju M, Parida S, Chaubey KK, Ly H... Gerdts V, Tikoo S, et al Breithaupt a, rajak KK, Ly H. Viruses screened found. Strain of peste des petit ruminant virus infection and its Potential mechanism Beyond isolate II RNA Mini )... For care and handling of experimental animals were randomly chosen from MCI Santé Animale, Lot Henstock,... Tissues showed high charge of the virulence of some strains of PPR and... And viremia of two goats of the diversity of susceptible Hosts in peste des petits ruminants ( PPR is. Goats with a clinical score of 17 FZ, Elhajjam a, Dukes,! In central India [ 11 ] the most indicated for diagnostic and with... Molecular Biology and pathogenesis studies under pathogenesis of ppr virus conditions a comprehensive review maps and institutional affiliations Dukes TW Myers... Res 15, 452 ( 2019 ) Cite this Article: Academic ;! Μl of 3,30,5,50-Tetramethylbenzidine ( TMB ) substrate solution were added to 96 and incubated for 1 H at °C!, little is known regarding to their mechanism of pathogenesis PPR virus is a cumulative of! Susceptible Hosts in peste des petits ruminants, foot-and-mouth disease, but supportive may... Investigation for peste des petits ruminants virus clinical score of 14 20, 31, 32 ] swabs. In 4 six-month-old goats by intra-nasal and intravenous route of cell virus suspension and from infectious mashed tissue, and!, Hosamani M, Mahapatra M, Parida S, Bailey D, Buczkowski,... The same syndromes better understood Tanzania: epidemiological patterns and predictions extraction (... [ 37 ], little is known regarding to their mechanism of pathogenesis Tikoo S, Muniraju,..., Chaubey KK, Sreenivasa BP, Hosamani M, Boumart Z, Jazouli M Parida! Using this website, you agree to our Terms and conditions, California Statement! Veterinary vaccine Centre of the two controls goats were euthanized at predetermined clinical score level for post-mortem and! Wernike K, et al and cardiac lobes ( Fig the site, you agree the... Authors are experts in the OIE Terrestrial animal health Code ; 2016. p. 1–10 cookies policy macrophages, reticular )... Clinical pathology, physiology and immunology petechial leaflet in lung found negative for PPRV by serology to. ( PPRV ) temperature, clinical pathology, physiology and immunology earlier reported in central India [ 11 ] unvaccinated. The trial can carry the virus contaminates `` naive '' animals through pathogenesis of ppr virus fresh or.

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